Positron Emission Tomography (PET) – Nuclear Medicine Imaging Technology

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Positron emission tomography (PET) is another approach to nuclear medicine imaging that has several advantages over SPECT. PET uses positron-emitting radionuclides that result in the emission of collinear pairs of 511-keV annihilation photons. The coincidence detection of the annihilation photons obviates the need for collimation and makes PET far more efficient than SPECT for detecting radioactivity. Even more importantly, there are positron-emitting radionuclides for oxygen, carbon, nitrogen, and fluorine, which allows a wide range of molecules to be labeled as diagnostic agents. Many of these radionuclides have short half-lives and require an on-site cyclotron. However, 18F has a long long half-life that it can be (and is) regionally provided, and there is no populated area of ​​the United States where it is unavailable. Several others such as 82Rb and 68Ga are available from radionuclide generators that provide the radionuclides on demand despite their short half-lives.

Coincidence detection provides spatial resolution without the need for lead collimation by taking advantage of the fact that the annihilation photons resulting from positron emission are approximately colinear. Events are only counted if they are simultaneously detected by two opposed detectors. The sensitive volume defined by the coincidence detectors is called a line of response (LOR). Two single detection systems are used with an additional coincidence module. Each individual system will generate a logic pulse when they detect an event that falls in the selected energy window. If the two logic pulses overlap in time at the coincidence module, a coincidence event is recorded. PET systems use a large number (> 10,000) of detectors arranged as multiple rings to form a cylinder. Since any one detector can be in coincidence with other detectors in the cylinder, the resulting LORs provide sufficient sampling to collect the projection information required for tomography.

The intrinsic detection efficiency for a singles detector depends on the atomic number, density, and thickness of the detector. Ideally, the intrinsic detection efficiency should be 1, but at 511 keV that is difficult to achieve, although intrinsic efficiency for some of the detectors is greater than 0.8. Coincidence detection requires that both detectors register an event. Since the interactions at the two detectors are independent, the consistency intrinsic efficiency depends on the product of the intrinsic efficiency at each detector. As a result, collision detection efficiency is always less than that for a single detector, and that difference gets magnified for low-efficiency detectors. Because of the need for high intrinsic efficiency, scintillators are naturally the only materials currently used as detectors in PET imaging systems.

A coincidence event is recorded when there is an overlap of the singles logic outputs at the coincidence modules. The time width of the overlap depends on the scintillation characteristics of the detectors. For current PET scanners, that width ranges from 6 to 12 ns. Although that is a very short time compared to most human activities, it is fairly long compared to distances covered by photons traveling at the speed of light. Light travels approximately 30 cm / …

Naturopathic Approach To Treatment Of Kidney Diseases

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Naturopathic medicine practitioners believe there is life after being diagnosed with one or more kidney diseases. If your condition is discovered early enough, you could have healed with alternative treatments for kidney disease. Holistic doctors also asserted that patients could use these alternative cures and skip expensive dialysis sessions. This is regardless of whether their condition is chronic or acute. For those who can not maintain their kidney function, without dialysis machines, herbal practitioners can optimize their health as well. Using their natural therapies, they can boost the sick person's immune system and stop permanent damage to other body vital organs.

For those who have had a transplant previously, naturopathic doctors can help prevent development of cancers in their organ with alternative treatments for kidney disease. Transplant patients also go through immunosuppressive therapy which has side effects. Herbal remedies can be used to curb the severity of those side effects. After being treated holistically, for seven days, several patients give the following report to their doctors.

  • Slightly improved or stabilized kidney function
  • Increased levels of energy even after dialysis (where applicable)
  • Reduced insomnia and peaceful sleep
  • Lowered blood pressure even without use of prescribed medicine
  • Better cardiovascular activity and health
  • Increased bone density and sexual energy and
  • Ability to handle side effects of prescribed medicine for those who must continue taking them. For instance, those who have kidney failure plus diabetes or high blood pressure must use alternative treatments for kidney disease and prescribed drugs.
  • Ability to obtain all advantages of a kidney transplant.

Although alternative treatments for kidney diseases work, you, the victim, must be able to locate a qualified holistic therapist. There are many doctors all over the country but you should choose the best. A good naturopathic doctor must aim to improve your condition rather than do harm with their herbal cures. So they should have a proven track record of giving the most effective health care, making sure they are posing the least risk to their patients. Second, they must aim at identifying and eliminating the causes of illness instead of suppressing its symptoms. Their alternative treatments for kidney disease should be effective enough to reverse the infection in question. Third, a holistic therapist must treat each person wholly. In other words, they should listen to the sick person's medical history before deciding how best to eliminate their illness.

Finally, a good herbal physicist should take the time to educate and encourage their patient. They should show kidney failure patients how to take self responsibility for their health. Alternative treatments for kidney disease have changed many peoples' lives. If you want naturopathy to work for you, be sure to seek the most appropriate doctor as discussed above. The treatment Themselves are many and they usually change the body of a sick person in many ways. First they reduce the load on the sick kidney by altering the diet type and pattern of the victim. Next, alternative treatments for kidney disease allow time for the ailing organs …

The Best Natural Antibiotic: Benefits Of Colloidal Silver

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It becomes unquestionably obvious what the best natural antibiotic is when you look at the history and recent research on the benefits of colloidal silver. The efficacy of colloidal silver becomes even more conclusive with the 1999 FDA ruling against its use after it had been employed for centuries in cultures worldwide.

If anyone still lacks awareness of big pharma’s power to influence the FDA they certainly won’t understand the last statement! Suffice to say that colloidal silver’s use as an antibiotic fell by the way side when pharmaceutical companies patented organic antibiotics.

There are more than a few issues, well-known in the field of medicine, with organic antibiotics. Not the least of which is that they destroy all the beneficial microbes in the gut necessary for proper digestion and assimilation of nutrients.

Then, there is the growing and alarming problem we are faced with in resistant strains of pathogens. The flippant prescribing of antibiotics for every and any sign of disease has bred incredibly powerful and dangerous pathogens that are immune to most of the organic antibiotics available.

The impressive germ killing properties of silver have been known for centuries as it was used by the wealthy in ancient civilizations to store liquids and make eating utensils. It was prescribed by the Ayurvedic system of medicine, which was developed in India 2,000 years ago, for infectious and inflammatory diseases.

When the pioneers who settled North America pushed the frontier west it was common to throw silver coins into the water barrels to keep the water free of germs. This was a throwback to ancient dynasties of Egypt and the Middle East where silver coins were placed in the water of monarchs and nobles.

Just as the Romans used it for preventing infection and healing wounds it is commonly and, I might say, very successfully used for the same thing today, especially burns. Silver is also used in medicine for a number of other applications that require anti-microbial properties. These include catheter, bone implants and cardiovascular devices like heart valves and stents.

The big breakthrough in the historical use of silver as an antibiotic came in 1914 when Henry Crookes discovered in his experimentation that silver in its colloidal form killed B. Tuberculosis in 4 minutes and Streptococci and other pathogens in 3 to 4 minutes.

Colloidal silver was historically produced by a process of electrolysis in distilled water. This forms ions of silver and as they multiply some of the ions coalesce into microscopic particles. Ideally you want to produce very small particles in the order of 40 to 50 nanometres. The uniformity of the particles is also important.

Ironically it was first supported by the pharmaceutical industry when it was widely promoted in the early 1900’s by Albert Searle who founded the pharmaceutical company, which later became Merck. With the discovery of penicillin and its use in medicine beginning in the 1940’s the tables were turned.

It would have been very difficult for pharmaceutical companies to get a …

Importance Of Medicine In Our Daily Lives

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Medicine is considered as one of the most important necessity to all of us. It is derived from the Latin words ars medicina meaning “the art of healing”. It is a branch of the health sciences and is the sector of public life concerned with maintaining or restoring human health through the study, diagnosis, treatment and possible prevention of disease, injury and other damage to a body or mind.

It is both an area of knowledge, a science of body system and their diseases and treatment. This branch of science encompasses treatment by drugs, diet, exercise and other nonsurgical means. It is also used to maintain our health. An agent such as drug is used to treat disease or injury. There are different types of medicine, we have herbal medicine, which came from different kinds of plants, medicines treat in hospital and etc. Herbal medicine, also called botanical medicine or phytomedicine, refers to use of any plant’s seeds, berries, roots, leaves, bark, or flowers for medicinal purposes. Long practiced outside of conventional medicine, herbalism is becoming more mainstreams as up-to-date analysis and research show their value in the treatment and prevention of disease. Some of us believe in herbal medicines, for it is pure came from plants and no other ingredients. Herbal medicine also uses for cough, fever, toothache and some other diseases that might catch from our environment. Herbalists treat many conditions such as asthma, eczema, premenstrual syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, migraine, menopausal symptoms, chronic fatigue, and an irritable bowel syndrome among others. Plants had been used for medicinal purposes long before recorded history. For most herbs, the specific ingredient that causes a therapeutic effect is not known. Whole herbs contain many ingredients and it is likely that they work together to produce the desired medicinal effect

Some medicines may cause problems if you take them with other medicines. This is why it is important to tell your doctor and pharmacist about all the medicines you are taking. And some medicines can cause problems, even if you take them correctly. Call your doctor or pharmacist if you think your medicine is making you feel worse. We take medicine to make us feel better when we are sick.…

Find Out How Medical Acupuncture Can Help You

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Acupuncture is an ancient Chinese form of healing, and medical acupuncture is a more recent form that is widely practiced in the west. Acupuncture simply refers to a technique where fine needles are inserted and manipulated into certain specific points to help relieve pain and for other beneficial purposes. When a doctor trained and licensed in western medicine pursues acupuncture training, it is termed as medical acupuncture. As there are many different approaches to learning and practicing acupuncture, a doctor can use one particular approach or a combination of two to treat medical conditions.

Medical acupuncture is a healing process that does not fall within conventional medicine is now being considered to be an alternative medical technique. In the West, medical acupuncture is primarily used to treat pain caused by problems with bones, muscles, and joints. It is also used to treat illness like asthma, irritable bowel syndrome etc. Acupuncture can also effectively provide pain relief for patients suffering from cancer. It can also help in many medical conditions like migraine, headache, back pain, and dental pain. Acupuncture has also been seen to be effective in the treatment of nausea.

Acupuncture helps by triggering pain-releasing endorphins in the brain that promote mental and physical well-being. It can effectively provide relief from various medical conditions and help prevent illness. Acupuncture can be used to treat many medical conditions, be it respiratory disorders, digestive disorders, neurological disorders, or reproductive problems; Acupuncture can be your solution. It is highly useful in solving problems arising from tension and other emotional conditions.

The acupuncturist usually begins the treatment process by taking the case history of the patient and asking some questions concerning your current health facts. This assessment is to determine which acupuncture points would be needed, this way the treatment is unique to each patient and focusses on his / her particular problem. Acupuncturists may make use of cupping and moxibustion to stimulate the acupuncture points. If you are unsure about the needles, do not worry as most people do not face any discomfort and in most cases, brings a feeling of relaxation. Also, the doctor would sterilize the needles before inserting it; Therefore, you do not need to worry about infection.

In most cases, acupuncture has no side effects but in some cases, the original symptoms may not get noticeably better or other general changes may take place. However, you need not worry, as this is an indication that the method is working. Also with the first treatments, you may have a feeling of deep relaxation or mild disorientation but proper rest and time would fix that.

Although many are under the impression that acupuncture is ineffective, you should know that in the past 2,000 years, it has successfully treated numerous medical conditions. Now in modern times, it is being broadly used by patients and doctors alike. Also, remember that acupuncture can be given with other techniques at the same time.

Now that you know the several benefits of medical acupuncture, why not …

Medicinal Herbs Continue As An Alternative To Main Line Pharmaceuticals

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Modern medicine and more importantly the pharmaceutical industry have long wished to refute the claimed benefits of consuming medicinal herbs, however, there are those who believe that the healing power of herbs live on. May it be recognized that contradicting many research studies is the fact that many herbs are used in the manufacture of today's medicine, thereby cementing the notification that medicinal herbs can be useful in protecting and curing some illnesses.

In the early days of modern medicine, testing of a medicinal herb was based on patients use to record its effects. In a simplistic way. If the result was positive as well as repeatable, the herb was prescribed for the particular illness for which id had been used. On the other hand, if the results were singular and its effect could not be repeated, its use was discontinued and put on a list of worthless theories.

In hindsight, many herbalists believe that the requirements of the test may have been slanted. As with some conventional medicine, medicinal herbs do not have the same effect on every patient and they believe the test groupings may have been too small to accurately depict the benefit of the medicinal herb.

In most cases the taking of a medicinal herb usually shows no sign of ill effects, however, there are some natural herbs that can cause problems in humans. Therefore, as with modern medicine, any medicinal herb should be taken with caution and only in prescribed dosages given by a trained herbalist.

Herbs Have Centuries Of History On Their Side

It is commonly believed that the Chinese were the first to use any medicinal herb for treating illnesses. In fact there are medical journals that date back around 5000 years listing various known herbal medicines, it has also been discovered that ancient Greece and Egypt count the medicinal herb as an important part of health care, thousands of yards ago. Many of the herbs they used are still being used by naturalists around the world and many are also marketed for the specific ailments for which they have been used back then.

Unfortunately, the use of medicinal herbs has been a cause of concern for many medical professionals due to the lack of control over their use in over the counter products sold in many drug stores and health stores. Owing to the lack of control in the manufacturing process of these herbal medicines, the claim is that mixing certain herbs and other natural products may cause side effects of which the consumer is unaware ..

An example of one of the medicinal herbs used today is red clover, which grows wild in many parts of the country. It is claimed to have healing tendencies for skin ailments such as eczema and psoriasis as well as chronic degenerative diseases and dry cough. Unfortunately, there is little information concerning the proper dosage and application of the clover to achieve the most benefits.

Irrespective of the innumerable documented successful treatments of cases of …

The Zen Macrobiotic Diet – For Health & Happiness

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The Zen Macrobiotic diet originated over a century ago and today enjoys a worldwide following due its principles of harmonious living with nature through a balanced whole foods diet, and an active lifestyle and respect for the environment.

Lets look at why the Zen Macrobiotic diet has such a reputation for being one of the healthiest diets in the world.

Origins of the Zen Macrobiotic diet

Dr. Ishizuka (the originator of the Zen Macrobiotic diet) treated both kidney and skin disease, so to restore his health conducted extensive research which was compiled into two books-Chemical Theory of Longevity, published in 1896, and Diet For Health, published in 1898.

His great successor Yukikazu Sakurazawa integrated the theory with elements of eastern and western philosophy and brave the diet the name we know it by today.

Zen Macrobiotic Diet theory

The Macrobiotic philosophy is based on the oriental principles that everything in creation is made up of two antagonistic but complementary forces – yin (passive, silent, cold and dark) and yang (active, hot and heavy).

Consequently, they categorized all foodstuffs as 'yin' and 'yang', or combinations of them both. They believe that the ideal diet is one that can help balance these two forces in the body.

According to Mr. Ohsawa's yin and yang guidelines for the Zen Macrobiotic diet:

O Cereals must always be every meal's basis. The most ideal is whole, brown rice.

O Vegetables can supplement cereals, but in less quantities and less frequently. Eggplant and tomatoes must be avoided, as they are extremely yin.

O Fresh fish can be used occasionally. Animal and dairy products and fruits are to be used in minute amounts.

O All fluids should be taken as infrequently as possible, since they are very yin, especially tea, coffee, colas and sweetened juices. Tea made from fresh herbs, and spring water are thought to be the most balanced and acceptable beverages. Mr. Ohsawa wave a special recipe for such a tea.

Ohsawa himself defined macrobiotics as a dietary medicine-philosophy, while his successors simply call it "a sensible way of eating". Actually, then, there is no macrobiotic diet per se, just general principals.

General principles of the Zen Macrobiotic diet

Diets based on cereal grains with minor proportions of vegetables, legumes, and seaweeds are considered ideal.

The Zen Macrobiotic diet is predominately, but not absolutely, vegetarian.

The Zen Macrobiotic diet makes general dietary recommendations, particularly that 40 to 60 percent of caloric intake should come from whole grains, including rice, millet, barley, wheat, oats, rye, corn and buckwheat.

Additionally to the type of food ateen, the Zen Macrobiotic Diet advises:

O Do not eat processed, sugared, dyed, canned, bottled, or other adulterated food.

O Eat no foods produced have been treated with pesticides, chemical fertilizers or preservatives.

O Eat no foods imported from a long distance.

O Eat no vegetables or fruits out of season.

O Refrain from eating extreme yin vegetables, such as potatoes, tomatoes and eggplant.

O Use no spices, chemical seasonings or processed …

Integrative Medicine Programs in America

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Mind, body and spirit therapies are not just the latest health craze; A matter of fact there are several healing arts schools and even conventional colleges that have initiated offering integrative medicine programs to keep up with the demand for natural and holistic healthcare.

Today, there are numerous integrative medicine programs in which individuals can choose to enroll. Botanical medicine, (also known as herbal medicine) is a great option to those medical professionals desiring to extend additional, non-invasive, and holistic health treatments. Nurse practitioners, doctors and other healthcare providers who enroll in herbal integrative medicine programs gain education and training in the history of botanical medicine and pharmacy; Herbal nutritional counseling, dosing and formulation; Pathology in relation to botanical medicine, herbal safety and toxicity, and other related studies.

Many family medical practitioners have discovered that integrative medicine programs are an excellent way to help and healing. This is why some universities and colleges have teamed up with accredited alternative and complementary medicine schools to provide a growing number of healing arts courses. Common studies offered in these integrative medicine programs include mind-body medicine, energy healing therapies, holistic nutrition, massage therapy, herbal therapeutics and aromatherapy, chiropractic, osteopathy, spiritual counseling, and environmental medicine, among others.

Depending on which field or fields interest you, it is important to carefully examine potential integrative medicine programs for its depth of curriculum, and what all is entailed in the course of study. For example, if you are already a practicing physician and would like to focus on natural healthcare disciplines like homeopathy, you will find that there are several continuing professional development courses in integrative medicine tailored to meet your career goals. However, as with any academic program, some integrative medicine programs (ie, chiropractic, homeopathy, naturopathy, acupuncture, etc.) may take up to four years to complete; So it is always a wise decision to review courses and educational prerequisites prior to applying.

Massage therapy training is probably one of the more popular integrative medicine programs as this holistic health treatment is commonly facilitated in chronic and terminal illnesses, and in pain management. Again, depending on how committed prospective candidates are to gaining an in-depth education is what will ultimately determine which natural health course will be best suited to meet professional needs. Massotherapy training is typically comprised of over 300 hours, and in many cases, except 500 hours (in order to achieve National certification status). General studies include anatomy, physiology, pathology, kinesiology, sports massage, deep tissue massage, and Swedish massage; However, many healing arts schools and conventional medicine schools that provide integrative medicine programs will often extend more advance bodywork therapies like Shiatsu / acupressure, touch therapy, craniosacral therapy, myofascial release, prenatal / infant massage, and lymphatic drainage massage, among others.

If you (or someone you know) are interested in finding complementary and alternative healthcare courses, let professional training within fast-growing industries like massage therapy, cosmetology, acupuncture, oriental medicine, Reiki, and others get you started! Explore integrative medicine programs [http://school.holisticjunction.com/clickcount.php?id=6634739&goto=http://www.holisticjunction.com/search.cfm] near you.

Integrative Medicine Programs in

Top 5 Homeopathic Pain Killers

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Unfortunately pain is something that everyone will experience in life. While pain is uncomfortable, it can actually be a good thing and there are homeopathic pain killers that can be taken to provide you with safe natural pain relief that is non narcotic.

When you have pain, what you are really experiencing is your body sending you a signal that something is wrong. Imagine if you had a ruptured disc in your back (ok I’m feeling the pain just thinking about it!) and you were just walking around all day going about your every day responsibilities…working, exercising etc. If you didn’t have any pain, you would not know something was really wrong. Pain is your natural defense against being injured for the long haul.

Pharmaceutical drugs have a host of harmful side effects so opting to take homeopathic pain killers when you are hurting is a wise choice. I know after I had my foot surgery I decided against pharmaceutical drugs and chose the homeopathic route. Boy, I’m glad I did.

Below is a list of pain killers that are not new to homeopathic care and are effective for many interested in using homeopathic pain killers:

  1. Arnica is effective at treating arthritis, muscle sprains and strains, and bruises. Arnica is an herb that’s derived from a yellow flower grown in European mountains. Arnica can be applied topically in gel form or taken orally with another homeopathic treatment.
  2. Curcumin is a excellent because it helps to prevent and reduce inflammation. Curcumin should be taken in capsule form with an enzyme called bromelain because your body absorbs it better. Bromelain is also an anti-inflammatory agent and is used by many doctors to treat pain caused by arthritis. When I was experiencing signs of rheumatoid and I told my doctor that I didn’t want to take medicine, she recommended Bromelain.
  3. Devil’s claw fights pain and inflammation but you have to be careful with this one if you have stomach problems. Devil’s claw is actually a fruit that’s found in South Africa and has been used to help reduce back and arthritis pain.
  4. Feverfew is an age old homeopathic pain killer and works wonders at relieving headaches, arthritis pain and minor pain. Feverfew is not only a natural pain killer but it has also been proven to stop headaches and migraines from creeping up. Anyone with headaches should try this alternative pain reliever.
  5. Frankincense is known for its ability to treat chronic inflammatory pain in conditions such as arthritis. This herb helps to greatly reduce pain associated with minor injuries as well.

Homeopathic pain killers are your safe option for reducing and even eliminating mild to chronic pain because they are non narcotic. Even though taking certain herbs may have some side effects for different people, those side effects are much less harmful than those you get from taking pharmaceutical drugs. As with anything, you should exercise caution and do your homework when deciding to take homeopathic pain killers.…

Clinical Metrics and How They Are Measured

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It has always been said that you can not manage what you can not measure. Therefore, every aspect that requires management can only be deemed effective if there are numbers to valid claims and observations. This applies in the medical world, too, as seen in the presence of clinical metrics. Normally, what is used to extremely present performance from a clinical standpoint is a scorecard.

Scorecards are used to obtain balance in several aspects of the business. Companies use this as a business strategy and these figures are shown in their report. This may show a program-wise or organizational wide performance and this may also be drilled down to the rank and file employee level. The reason this is being practiced is because there should be a well defined set of targets that need to be achieved. This promotes awareness to all parties concerned and this will help employees realize their goals, as mandated by the organization.

Measuring the effectiveness of clinical performance may somewhat be deemed difficult. This is because medicine is a totally different industry from manufacturing where the usage of KPIs and metrics originated. KPI stands for Key Performance Indicators. These are the specific items that are measured to determine efficiency. These may include productivity and customer satisfaction.

For clinics, what may be measured as part of the metric is timeliness of delivery of medicine. This may also include accuracy of diagnosis. This is very integral in the management of hospitals since wrong diagnosis is critical and will only add insult to injury. Each medical facility may have its own version of what needs to be measured.

Normally, there are categories that are measured to indicate clinical efficiency. These categories are standardized to ensure that the service that patients get is of equal standard. The first thing that needs to be measured is Clinical Risk and Patient Safety. Obviously, people go to hospitals to have their ailments cured, so it is ironic that patients get hurt in hospitals instead of getting cured. There have also been reports that show how a patient who had had a blood transfusion contracted another disease. Similarly, the blood of the donor was not checked. These are the kinds of safety measures that medical institutions should always look into to avoid hazards. Other than this, the facility should also be safe. Elevators, ladders, and others should not pose a threat to patients.

Next in line involves Clinical Appropriateness and Clinical Efficiency. What is measured here is not only the efficiency of the staff but the entire process. How does a patient check in and check out? Simple things such as this will seriously impact the clinic's performance. It should be noted that there has to be flow in everything. This also takes into consideration the rounds spoken by nurses and where they log everything that they have checked.

In essence, clinical metrics is something that needs to be measured in every general aspect. However, this has to be broken down to pieces …