Positron Emission Tomography (PET) – Nuclear Medicine Imaging Technology

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Positron emission tomography (PET) is another approach to nuclear medicine imaging that has several advantages over SPECT. PET uses positron-emitting radionuclides that result in the emission of collinear pairs of 511-keV annihilation photons. The coincidence detection of the annihilation photons obviates the need for collimation and makes PET far more efficient than SPECT for detecting radioactivity. Even more importantly, there are positron-emitting radionuclides for oxygen, carbon, nitrogen, and fluorine, which allows a wide range of molecules to be labeled as diagnostic agents. Many of these radionuclides have short half-lives and require an on-site cyclotron. However, 18F has a long long half-life that it can be (and is) regionally provided, and there is no populated area of ​​the United States where it is unavailable. Several others such as 82Rb and 68Ga are available from radionuclide generators that provide the radionuclides on demand despite their short half-lives.

Coincidence detection provides spatial resolution without the need for lead collimation by taking advantage of the fact that the annihilation photons resulting from positron emission are approximately colinear. Events are only counted if they are simultaneously detected by two opposed detectors. The sensitive volume defined by the coincidence detectors is called a line of response (LOR). Two single detection systems are used with an additional coincidence module. Each individual system will generate a logic pulse when they detect an event that falls in the selected energy window. If the two logic pulses overlap in time at the coincidence module, a coincidence event is recorded. PET systems use a large number (> 10,000) of detectors arranged as multiple rings to form a cylinder. Since any one detector can be in coincidence with other detectors in the cylinder, the resulting LORs provide sufficient sampling to collect the projection information required for tomography.

The intrinsic detection efficiency for a singles detector depends on the atomic number, density, and thickness of the detector. Ideally, the intrinsic detection efficiency should be 1, but at 511 keV that is difficult to achieve, although intrinsic efficiency for some of the detectors is greater than 0.8. Coincidence detection requires that both detectors register an event. Since the interactions at the two detectors are independent, the consistency intrinsic efficiency depends on the product of the intrinsic efficiency at each detector. As a result, collision detection efficiency is always less than that for a single detector, and that difference gets magnified for low-efficiency detectors. Because of the need for high intrinsic efficiency, scintillators are naturally the only materials currently used as detectors in PET imaging systems.

A coincidence event is recorded when there is an overlap of the singles logic outputs at the coincidence modules. The time width of the overlap depends on the scintillation characteristics of the detectors. For current PET scanners, that width ranges from 6 to 12 ns. Although that is a very short time compared to most human activities, it is fairly long compared to distances covered by photons traveling at the speed of light. Light travels approximately 30 cm / …

Clinical Ladder Success for Nurses

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Does your hospital have a clinical ladder? Should you get involved? Hospitals usually have them so they can reward their staff for excellence in nursing. Starting and keeping up your clinical ladder means increasing your knowledge, professionalism, teamwork, and getting financially rewarded for it. Nurses can advance their career from RN Category 1 up to Category 4. They can do this by demonstrating clinical expertise and completing continuing education courses, advancing their professional certifications, and conducting research. RN program participants are reviewed and approved by their peers.

All you need to do to get started is to get the information packet that explains your hospital’s program. Then look at those requirements and see what is an obtainable goal that you feel you can realistically achieve.

The clinical ladder is different in every institution. Some hospitals will not let you drop down to a lower category if you do not complete the higher category that you signed-up for. For example, if you sign-up to complete Category 2, and do not finish it within the time allocated, the hospital might not allow you to drop you down to Category 1. The nursing managers, or nursing education department, will typically be the ones to help you with setting-up your program and guiding you through all the rules.

Reasons a Hospital Has a Clinical Ladder:

  1. To promote excellence in practice to assure quality patient care;
  2. To recognize nurses who show leadership within their unit;
  3. Maintain expert nurses at the bedside;
  4. Encourage ongoing personal and professional development;
  5. Facilitate career advancement;
  6. Support recognition and retention of the nursing staff;
  7. To foster self-growth in leadership;
  8. To promote exceptional customer service and team collaboration;
  9. To provide a clear delineation of nursing competence levels;
  10. Promote participation in volunteer community and health nursing service;
  11. Many institutions need to prepare for Magnet designation.

Popular Clinical Ladder Choices:

  1. Certification in your nursing field;
  2. A higher college degree such as BSN, or MSN;
  3. CEU’s or contact hours that can be obtained at a live conference;
  4. On-line or web-cast learning programs offer convenient way to get contact hours;
  5. ACLS, PALS, NRP certifications may be part of the clinical ladder options;
  6. College credits (healthcare related) are a great way to get clinical ladder credits;
  7. Volunteer at a community health fair;
  8. Precept or mentor a new nurse;
  9. Be the charge nurse;
  10. Be active in hospital committees (this usually has a minimum of hours required);
  11. Offer a journal club, or semi-formal in-service to your peers on a patient-care topic.
  12. Be a champion (wound care, pain, magnet, pathway to excellence, P.I., etc.)

Naturopathic Approach To Treatment Of Kidney Diseases

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Naturopathic medicine practitioners believe there is life after being diagnosed with one or more kidney diseases. If your condition is discovered early enough, you could have healed with alternative treatments for kidney disease. Holistic doctors also asserted that patients could use these alternative cures and skip expensive dialysis sessions. This is regardless of whether their condition is chronic or acute. For those who can not maintain their kidney function, without dialysis machines, herbal practitioners can optimize their health as well. Using their natural therapies, they can boost the sick person's immune system and stop permanent damage to other body vital organs.

For those who have had a transplant previously, naturopathic doctors can help prevent development of cancers in their organ with alternative treatments for kidney disease. Transplant patients also go through immunosuppressive therapy which has side effects. Herbal remedies can be used to curb the severity of those side effects. After being treated holistically, for seven days, several patients give the following report to their doctors.

  • Slightly improved or stabilized kidney function
  • Increased levels of energy even after dialysis (where applicable)
  • Reduced insomnia and peaceful sleep
  • Lowered blood pressure even without use of prescribed medicine
  • Better cardiovascular activity and health
  • Increased bone density and sexual energy and
  • Ability to handle side effects of prescribed medicine for those who must continue taking them. For instance, those who have kidney failure plus diabetes or high blood pressure must use alternative treatments for kidney disease and prescribed drugs.
  • Ability to obtain all advantages of a kidney transplant.

Although alternative treatments for kidney diseases work, you, the victim, must be able to locate a qualified holistic therapist. There are many doctors all over the country but you should choose the best. A good naturopathic doctor must aim to improve your condition rather than do harm with their herbal cures. So they should have a proven track record of giving the most effective health care, making sure they are posing the least risk to their patients. Second, they must aim at identifying and eliminating the causes of illness instead of suppressing its symptoms. Their alternative treatments for kidney disease should be effective enough to reverse the infection in question. Third, a holistic therapist must treat each person wholly. In other words, they should listen to the sick person's medical history before deciding how best to eliminate their illness.

Finally, a good herbal physicist should take the time to educate and encourage their patient. They should show kidney failure patients how to take self responsibility for their health. Alternative treatments for kidney disease have changed many peoples' lives. If you want naturopathy to work for you, be sure to seek the most appropriate doctor as discussed above. The treatment Themselves are many and they usually change the body of a sick person in many ways. First they reduce the load on the sick kidney by altering the diet type and pattern of the victim. Next, alternative treatments for kidney disease allow time for the ailing organs …

Natural Anxiety Remedy – Herbs That Help

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Are you suffering from an anxiety disorder? The safe way to calm your nerves is to take advantage of a proven natural anxiety remedy. Not every natural remedy is effective, so let's reveal your most common options.

Passionflower ( Passiflora incarnata )

Passionflower is normally used as a natural remedy for anxiety and insomnia. Possible side-effects can include drowsiness, nausea, vomiting, and an increased heartbeat. It should not be combined with other sedatives. Pregnant or nursing women should also avoid using it.

Kava kava ( Piper methysticum )

This Polynesian herb may have some beneficial effect upon anxiety. However, there may be a high risk of liver injury due to kava use.

Valerian ( Valeriana officinalis )

This is another herb that is usually used for the treatment of insomnia, but which may also be used as a natural anxiety remedy. Side-effects may include dizziness, headaches and some indigestion. It should not be combined with sedatives or antihistamines. People with liver problems should also avoid using it.

Green tea ( Camellia sinensis )

Green tea has its origins in China and is a popular tea in places such as Asia, Japan and the Middle East. It contains the amino acid L-theanine which has a positive impact upon anxiety. Green tea also contain some other beneficial ingredients such as polyphenols and anti-oxidants.

St. John's Wort ( Hypericum perforatum )

This herb has been used for centers to treat mental disorders. More recent is has been used for relief from mild depression and anxiety. Possible side-effects include dizziness, fatigue, headaches and increased sensitivity to sunlight. St. John wort may interact with some drugs and should not be combined with antidepressants.

Taking vitamins such as B6 and B12 may also help. These vitamins help to control your body's reaction to stress. It also promotes a healthy nervous system in general. You may also consider taking a multivitamin supplement on a daily basis.

A natural anxiety remedy may be beneficial in the long run. Remember to consult your doctor before you start using a natural anxiety remedy. This is important in order to avoid harmful interactions between drugs and herbs. …

Natural Health – Green Smoothies For Healing Stomach Problems

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Millions of people have unresolved stomach problems. More and more people are looking for a more holistic and natural approach to chronic health issues. Here is a great way to stop popping pills and feel better.

Start drinking smoothies, green smoothies. It's simple. Here's a basic recipe and why the ingredients can help to heal your indigestion or stomach pain.

I call it the Green Tingler.

In a blender you can mix the following ingredients:

~~ A banana provides soothing moisture and makes you feel full. It provides complex carbohydrates and potassium to keep your energy level up

~~ A pear provides fiber, moisture, and helps to cleanse waste and toxins from the lining of your intestines.

~~ A few stalks of celery provides cooling moisture to your stomach and also flushes toxins from your system.

~~ A handful of spinach provides loads of micro nutrients, antioxidants, and chlorophyll which is good for cleansing and cooling your stomach and your blood.

~~ A teaspoon of fresh or ground ginger provides soothing relief and relieves gas and indigestion.

~~ Half an avocado provides "good" fats, the kind that are needed to reduce inflammation in your body. It also provides cooling moisture.

Blend all these ingredients together with fresh pure water and you've got a nutritious power packed meal. You will feel satisfied and find relief from your stomach pains. You can adjust the amounts and proportions of ingredients to suit your taste. If you like, add a few fresh dates or some maple syrup for a sweeter drink.

You'll save time and money with less medicines, co-pays, and trips to the doctor or pharmacy. The best news is you'll feel better. …

The Best Natural Antibiotic: Benefits Of Colloidal Silver

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It becomes unquestionably obvious what the best natural antibiotic is when you look at the history and recent research on the benefits of colloidal silver. The efficacy of colloidal silver becomes even more conclusive with the 1999 FDA ruling against its use after it had been employed for centuries in cultures worldwide.

If anyone still lacks awareness of big pharma’s power to influence the FDA they certainly won’t understand the last statement! Suffice to say that colloidal silver’s use as an antibiotic fell by the way side when pharmaceutical companies patented organic antibiotics.

There are more than a few issues, well-known in the field of medicine, with organic antibiotics. Not the least of which is that they destroy all the beneficial microbes in the gut necessary for proper digestion and assimilation of nutrients.

Then, there is the growing and alarming problem we are faced with in resistant strains of pathogens. The flippant prescribing of antibiotics for every and any sign of disease has bred incredibly powerful and dangerous pathogens that are immune to most of the organic antibiotics available.

The impressive germ killing properties of silver have been known for centuries as it was used by the wealthy in ancient civilizations to store liquids and make eating utensils. It was prescribed by the Ayurvedic system of medicine, which was developed in India 2,000 years ago, for infectious and inflammatory diseases.

When the pioneers who settled North America pushed the frontier west it was common to throw silver coins into the water barrels to keep the water free of germs. This was a throwback to ancient dynasties of Egypt and the Middle East where silver coins were placed in the water of monarchs and nobles.

Just as the Romans used it for preventing infection and healing wounds it is commonly and, I might say, very successfully used for the same thing today, especially burns. Silver is also used in medicine for a number of other applications that require anti-microbial properties. These include catheter, bone implants and cardiovascular devices like heart valves and stents.

The big breakthrough in the historical use of silver as an antibiotic came in 1914 when Henry Crookes discovered in his experimentation that silver in its colloidal form killed B. Tuberculosis in 4 minutes and Streptococci and other pathogens in 3 to 4 minutes.

Colloidal silver was historically produced by a process of electrolysis in distilled water. This forms ions of silver and as they multiply some of the ions coalesce into microscopic particles. Ideally you want to produce very small particles in the order of 40 to 50 nanometres. The uniformity of the particles is also important.

Ironically it was first supported by the pharmaceutical industry when it was widely promoted in the early 1900’s by Albert Searle who founded the pharmaceutical company, which later became Merck. With the discovery of penicillin and its use in medicine beginning in the 1940’s the tables were turned.

It would have been very difficult for pharmaceutical companies to get a …

Muscle and Fitness Magazine – An Essential Element in a Healthy Lifestyle

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If you were looking for a cheap and an effective way for those six-pack muscles, the best way to do that would be to subscribe to a good muscle and fitness magazine. Most of these fitness magazines provide you core ideas as to how to go about building and shaping up your body and staying fit. Staying fit and healthy ensures that you are happy and enjoy life to the fullest.

Most fitness experts would advise you to go for regular exercising properly backed up by controlled diet and meditation. In this world of fast-paced technology where time is perhaps the most valuable thing available, the modern jet set executive has no time to devote to fitness regimes and the gym. It is indeed a drab and monotonous life for these successful young men who know nothing beyond their computers and dossiers of management information.

As they enter their forties, they are good for the scrap heap having wasted years behind piling tons of money but doing nothing to keep their body in good shape. A top end muscle and fitness magazine would provide you genuine tips to keep healthy. Some even go the extra mile in suggesting recipes that are nutritious and completely fat free, you really do not have to bother about your health by cooking up these great recipes. Most important of all, what is needed for the body to remain in shape is a reasonably adequate amount of exercising. What does exercising do to your body? Exercises help in eliminating fat from the system, tones up the muscles and keep the body agile and active.

If finding out the correct muscle and fitness magazine is difficult for you, there is no reason to worry. Just spend some time to scramble through the internet and you will find many of them online. Some of them give you rave reviews from experts worldwide while some more have opinionated discussion boards online. Take your pick today as a guide to healthy cost-effective living. …

Memory Loss Because of Mental Illness

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Neurology and psychiatry are related in more than one ways. Naturally, an adverse effect on your mind can lead to some neurological problems. That is why mental illness can lead to memory loss in many cases. There are several types of mental illnesses and their effect on your memory varies depending on the severity of the disease. It has been seen in several studies and researches that severe mental trauma can lead to a number of memory disorders, mostly temporary, but sometimes permanent as well.

Here is how mental illness can lead to memory loss sometimes.

Mental Disorder and Loss of Memory

• Depression is a mental illness that has been seen in a number of people, mainly in the age group of 25-44. This is a major affective disorder, which is a sign of improper functioning of the brain. People suffering from bipolar or unipolar affective disorders are more prone to memory loss than the normal people.
• Dementia is more prominent of all mental illnesses that can directly lead to memory loss. This is a disease which is characterized by memory loss, personality change and deterioration in intellectual ability. At first, small amount of loss of memory is noticed in the patients of dementia, which typically worsens over a period of time, if untreated.
• Another illness where prominent memory loss can be noticed is schizophrenia. This is a situation where the patient experiences accessibility in differentiating between reality and something that's unreal. They may have excessive delusions, hallucination and can also show inefficiency to think. There are several medical reasons as to what can lead to schizophrenia. Mental illness can be one of these. A person who has suffered from severe mental trauma can get affected by this mental disorder in the later stages of his / her life.
• Alzheimer's is another condition that can lead to loss of memory, generally in older people. This disease generally cause short term loss of memory.

There are several other mental disorders and illnesses that can affect the proper functioning of your brain and the memory center – hippocampus. As a result, these conditions can lead to loss of memory, sometimes temporary and sometimes of a more severe nature. …

10 Reasons Why the Mediterranean Diet is Good For You

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Low in Saturated Fat

Physicians and nutritionists the world over all agree that a diet that is high in saturated fat can have very negative consequences on a person's health and wellbeing. Indeed, a diet that is high in saturated fat can cause a person to suffer heart disease, can lead to cancer and can cause a whole host of other health problems and concern.

The Mediterranean diet is noteworthy because of the fact that it is very low in saturated fat. The typical person who follows the Mediterranean diet intakes less than eight percent of his or her calories from potentially harmful saturated fat. This is significantly below the average of people who do not follow a Mediterranean diet regimen.

Includes Plentiful Amounts of Fresh Fruits and Vegetables

Another reason why the Mediterranean diet is good for you lies in the fact that the diet includes the consumption of a significant amount of fruit and vegetables. Indeed, the diet encompasses more fresh fruits and vegetables than any other diet program or plan today.

Fresh fruits and vegetables have a significant beneficial effect on a person's health and wellbeing. People who follow the Mediterranean diet and consume generous servings of fruits and vegetables each day have a lower incidence of certain diseases including cancer and cardiovascular ailments.

High in Whole Grains and Fiber

A benefit in the Mediterranean diet is found in the fact that it lowers in the incidence of certain types of cancer. One of the reasons that the Mediterranean diet lowers the incidence of cancer is found in the fact that the diet is rich in whole grains and dietary fiber. Both whole grain and fiber have proven to lower the incidence of cancer, including colorectal cancer.

High in Anti-Oxidants

The Mediterranean diet is high in anti-oxidants. Anti-oxidants play a significant role in maintaining the body – including organs, muscles and skin – in top condition. A diet high in anti-oxidants is believed to ensure that a person will live a longer, healthier life.

Low in Red Meat

Because the Mediterranean diet is low in red meat, the diet plan works to reduce the amount of "bad cholesterol." A diet low in "bad cholesterol" lessens the incidence of cardiovascular disease, hypertension and stroke.

High in Lean Meats

The Mediterranean diet includes lean meats in moderate portions. The reasonable amount of lean meats – including fish and certain seafood and fish – provides a health source of protein and energy for a person.

Low in Dairy

The Mediterranean diet is low in dairy products. In fact, a true adherent to the Mediterranean diet includes almost no dairy products at all. Any dairy that is included in the diet is low fat or non fat. Because the diet is low in dairy, particularly faty dairy products, the diet encourages a person to obtain or maintain an ideal weight. Additionally, the diet aids in decreasing cholesterol and works to prevent heart disease.

Prevents Disease

As mentioned, one of the reasons …

Importance Of Medicine In Our Daily Lives

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Medicine is considered as one of the most important necessity to all of us. It is derived from the Latin words ars medicina meaning “the art of healing”. It is a branch of the health sciences and is the sector of public life concerned with maintaining or restoring human health through the study, diagnosis, treatment and possible prevention of disease, injury and other damage to a body or mind.

It is both an area of knowledge, a science of body system and their diseases and treatment. This branch of science encompasses treatment by drugs, diet, exercise and other nonsurgical means. It is also used to maintain our health. An agent such as drug is used to treat disease or injury. There are different types of medicine, we have herbal medicine, which came from different kinds of plants, medicines treat in hospital and etc. Herbal medicine, also called botanical medicine or phytomedicine, refers to use of any plant’s seeds, berries, roots, leaves, bark, or flowers for medicinal purposes. Long practiced outside of conventional medicine, herbalism is becoming more mainstreams as up-to-date analysis and research show their value in the treatment and prevention of disease. Some of us believe in herbal medicines, for it is pure came from plants and no other ingredients. Herbal medicine also uses for cough, fever, toothache and some other diseases that might catch from our environment. Herbalists treat many conditions such as asthma, eczema, premenstrual syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, migraine, menopausal symptoms, chronic fatigue, and an irritable bowel syndrome among others. Plants had been used for medicinal purposes long before recorded history. For most herbs, the specific ingredient that causes a therapeutic effect is not known. Whole herbs contain many ingredients and it is likely that they work together to produce the desired medicinal effect

Some medicines may cause problems if you take them with other medicines. This is why it is important to tell your doctor and pharmacist about all the medicines you are taking. And some medicines can cause problems, even if you take them correctly. Call your doctor or pharmacist if you think your medicine is making you feel worse. We take medicine to make us feel better when we are sick.…