In general, the meaning of early childhood is a child aged 0-8 years. Little Person who is in this age range is in the stage of growth and development, both physically and mentally. The rate of growth and development of each child is different, yes Mam, depending on the environment, stimulation, and personality respectively. However, aspects of early child development generally include physical, cognitive, language, emotional, and social development.
Early childhood is often referred to as the term golden age or golden period. Mam must have heard this term often, have not you? Well, in the golden period, almost all the potential of the Small has a sensitive period to grow and develop rapidly and great, you know. By recognizing 5 aspects of early childhood development more deeply, Mam and Pap are expected to provide guidance in accordance with the stage of development of the Small. Therefore, yeah Mam, we recognize the five important aspects of the development of early childhood following.
- Aspect of Physical Development of Early Childhood
Aspects of early childhood development that focus on physical development include weight gain, height, brain development, and fine motor skills and fine motor. Gross motor development is characterized by active child moving, jumping, and running, especially at the age of 4-5 years. The more children age, the stronger the body. When physical development goes well, then he is even more good at aligning body movements with interests or needs. Meanwhile, the fine motor is the ability associated with physical skills involving small muscles and eye-hand coordination. Examples of fine motor skills are holding crayons, preparing puzzles, arranging blocks, and others.
- Aspects of Early Childhood Cognitive Development
The widely used theories of cognitive development (cognitive theory) today are those of Jean Piaget, a professor of psychology at the University of Geneva, Switzerland. He stated that children have different ways of thinking with adults. As part of the developmental aspects of early childhood, the child’s cognitive development is divided into four stages:
○ Sensorimotor stage (0-24 months)
At this time, the baby’s ability is limited to reflexes and senses. Babies can not consider the needs, wants, or interests of others. Therefore, babies are considered “egocentric”.
○ Preoperational stage (2-7 years)
At this time, children begin to receive stimuli but are very limited. He is also still “egocentric” because he can only consider things from his own point of view. The ability of language and vocabulary of children has also been developed, although still far from logical.
○ Concrete operational phase (7-11 years)
At this time, the ability to remember and think logically in children has increased. Children also understand the concept of cause and effect in a rational and systematic. Ability to learn the concept increases, so that children begin to learn math and reading.
○ Formal operational phase (from 11 years of age)
At this time, the child is able to think in the abstract and master the reasoning. This ability will help the child through the transition from adolescence to adult or real-world phases.
- Aspects of Early Childhood Language Development
The critical period in language development develops from the newborn to the age of five. The ability of the child’s language to grow and develop rapidly during the preschool. As one aspect of early childhood development, language skills can be an indicator of all child development. The reason, through the ability of language, can also be detected delays or abnormalities in other systems, such as cognitive, sensorimotor, psychological, emotional, and environmental abilities around the child.
- Aspects of Early Childhood Socio-Emotional Development
This early childhood developmental aspect has actually started since the baby was born. In terms of emotional for example, can be seen from various examples of infant attitude, such as smiling or stomping when he was happy or, crying to express his displeasure or dissatisfaction. During childhood, children tend to express their emotions with muscle movement, such as throwing, slamming, or hitting the goods. However, as you get older, your emotional reactions will generally turn into verbal aliases of certain feelings or words.
Meanwhile, the closeness of a baby to an adult is a first step towards the stages of social development. Social development refers to the development of children’s ability to interact and socialize with their environment. At first, the child only knows the people who are nearby, such as the primary caregiver, brother or sister, and others who live in the same house