Half of Americans focus on choosing healthy foods and beverages, but they lack healthy knowledge of soybeans. In 2014, a survey of 1,005 Americans conducted by the International Food Information Council Food and Health Survey Foundation showed that more than 90% of the respondents agreed with the health benefits of protein. One-quarter of Americans choose soybeans as a source of protein in their daily diet. However, only one-third of them understand that soybeans can protect heart health. Consumer surveys show that there is a lack of understanding of the benefits provided by soy and soy protein. This article provides evidence for registered nutritionists to guide and help the public understand the value of soybeans, and at the same time unveil the veil of soybeans to human health.
Soy contributes to a healthy and active life
Soybeans can be consumed directly or made into tofu, or soy products such as vegetarian meat, drinks, and soy energy bars. Soy is a high-density source of nutrients, rich in high-quality protein, vitamins and minerals. Whole soybeans are rich in 40% protein, soy protein concentrate or protein isolate is rich in 65%~90% protein. The following table shows the serving size of soy foods and the protein content of each serving. Soybeans can meet the daily needs of athletes in various forms.
Soy protein and muscle protein synthesis
Sports people, whether they are athletes or the elderly, desire to have developed muscle tissue. Muscles provide strength to support exercise, so the growth of muscle protein synthesis is a goal pursued by people of any age. But it is worth noting that the growth of muscle tissue is also affected by the decomposition rate of muscle protein, which may be caused by changes in muscle protein synthesis. Most athletes may have realized the benefits of consuming protein to increase muscle protein synthesis. Literature studies have shown that the branched chain amino acid, leucine, is one of the important amino acids that stimulate the growth of muscle protein. Soy protein is rich in leucine, which is very effective in improving muscle protein.
Soybeans have also been shown to increase muscle tissue more effectively than carbohydrate foods, comparable to whey protein. In one study, researchers provided whey protein, soy protein, or placebo to 26 untrained healthy men and women. Regardless of protein source, compared with isocaloric placebo, protein supplementation in resistance training can increase and strengthen muscle tissue.
In a double-blind randomized trial, Reddy and his colleagues sought to see if soy protein and milk protein would be more beneficial. Research subjects include high-intensity leg resistance training, and provide whey protein (18g) or a mixed protein of soy protein and milk (19g) after training. The two beverages contain enough essential amino acids (8.6 grams) for the human body to maximize the separation and synthesis rate. The conversion of dietary protein into muscle protein or similar efficacy is used as a measurement standard. It is found that compared with whey protein, consumption of a mixture of soy and dairy products Protein, the protein part of the muscle recovery period after exercise has a slower synthesis rate.
The importance of soy protein for vegetarian athletes
The protein recommended for vegetarian athletes is different from ordinary omnivorous athletes. They need to consume complete protein to meet the daily essential amino acids. There are many sources of protein that can be used to satisfy enough amino acids for muscle recovery after exercise. Soy protein is the best choice for vegetarian athletes because it is a complete protein. Taking soy protein after training can help skeletal muscles have enough amino acids to repair muscle protein and increase muscle protein synthesis. Of course, as mentioned above, compared with soy protein and dairy mixed protein, soy protein is slightly inferior in digestibility. However, soy foods are rich in calcium and zinc, and through fortification of vitamin D and B12, to make up for the lack of quality athletes’ diet.
Soy protein can increase satiety
Protein has the properties of satiety. Protein utilization hypothesis: There is an inverse relationship between protein intake and total energy intake. For example, soy protein, a complete protein, inhibits hunger through the following mechanisms, including the hypothalamus’s cognition of essential amino acid intake and the reaction of food regulating hormones in the gastrointestinal tract. In addition, increasing the intake of soy helps to control weight, maintain lean tissue, and reduce the incidence of heart disease.
Soy and reducing the incidence of heart disease
In 1999, the US Food and Drug Administration issued a health statement on soybeans: “As a diet that reduces saturated fat and cholesterol, a daily intake of 25 grams of soybean protein can reduce the incidence of heart disease. The mission of the Food and Drug Administration is Promoting the prevention and modification of lifestyles to the public and guiding them to choose soybeans is a positive move. A large number of recent analytical studies have shown that consuming soy protein can lower cholesterol. In a recent study on lifestyle intervention to control hypercholesterolemia In, Manu and his colleagues reviewed 14 years of research and concluded that soybeans are an important food source, and the soybean diet is a healthy way of eating that can lower cholesterol levels and reduce the risk of heart disease.
In a recent clinical trial, researchers found that including a daily intake of 30 grams of soy protein, a moderately high-protein food, can reduce the risk of metabolic syndrome and thereby reduce the occurrence of heart disease. In a randomized case crossover study, 15 menopausal women were assigned to the “soy protein” group or the “comprehensive animal protein” group. Both groups provide the same amount of protein (22% of energy), and maintain weight to ensure that weight loss is not a factor in altering metabolism. Compared with animal protein diet, soy protein food can significantly improve insulin sensitivity and reduce total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (4% and 9%, respectively). Using 30 grams of animal protein instead of soy protein will increase the risk of metabolic syndrome.
Barriers to consumption
If less attention is paid to nutrients and barriers to the consumption of soybeans are reduced, the Food and Drug Administration can guide the public to choose soybeans more. In a new study of young women (502 women between the ages of 20-35), Vincent and his colleagues found that about 44% of people do not consume tofu because they think that tofu tastes bad , The price is high and the cooking method is monotonous. Only 12% of respondents chose tofu because of its nutritional value. In 2013, a study by the International Food Information Committee on functional foods showed that the biggest obstacle for consumers to choose healthy foods like soy foods is price. Most consumers think that healthy foods are expensive. The popular fast food is easy to cook and cheap. In fact, there are many soy foods that are easily incorporated into the daily diet, including flavored soy milk, vegetarian meat, soy nuts and nut cream, soy milk, soy grains, and baked goods such as soy waffles and soy breads. Ingesting soybeans in the daily diet is actually not more difficult than preparing ordinary dishes. In fact, there are a wide variety of high-quality and easy-to-process soybean foods as choices.